Integrated Mass Transit System in the Pink City: Mobility for All

Mercredi 12 avril 2017
Gestion de la circulation, Infrastructures de transport, International, Logistique, Planification des transports, Recherche/Innovation, Transport de personnes
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Dr. Vimal Gahlot
Urban Transport Engineer
Public Works Department, Govt. Of Rajasthan

Integrated Mass Transit System in the Pink City: Mobility for All

Dr. Vimal Gahlot, Public Works Department, Govt. of  Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Jaipur is one of the major tourist cities in India, developed as an international tourist centre and the commercial capital of Rajasthan over the years. It had a population of 3.04 million in 2011. The rapid pace of urbanization has led to the development of the city in a disintegrated urban form, sprawling along major traffic corridors. With the growing urbanization, population and tourist facilities, the existing transportation infrastructure is in distress. The peak hour transit demand has significantly increased and the existing infrastructure is unable to serve the demand. All the corridors carrying daily passengers are facing a bottleneck situation. The lack of parking facilities and roadside encroachment are adding further difficulty to the situation. To answer the above problems and to provide mobility for all, the comprehensive planning of an integrated Jaipur Metro was implemented for accessible, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility. An integrated mass transit approach was developed by the local government for inclusive planning, with the aim of providing mobility for all in Jaipur City. The Jaipur Metro project is a landmark in the metro rail industry, being the fastest project to be completed in four and quarter years.

1  Introduction

A planned mass rapid transit system is the lifeline of a city and greatly boosts socio-economic development. In order to develop Jaipur as a world-class city, an integrated metro system is being implemented. Without proper integrated planning of mass transit in a multimodal transportation framework, it may not be possible to use the mass transit system to its full capacity. An integrated metro system is also being implemented in other metropolitan cities in the country. Before implementing an integrated transport system, it is essential to understand the barriers between the constituent modes to bring synergy into the operation as a component of the complete multimodal transport system.

Mass transit system integration is essentially a management technique applied to a group of functions that are currently being administered independently, but are, in fact, highly interdependent and could be managed more effectively by being treated as an interrelated part of a single system. It may be limited to an interface between two modes of mass transport, extending to all mass transit and paratransit operations within a metropolitan area or all modes of both public and private transportation. The objectives of this transit integration process are to:

  • Operate all the diverse and privately-owned services as though they were part of a single, area-wide transit system.
  • Eliminate wasteful duplications and extend the availability of services.
  • Benefit from combined planning, purchasing, and marketing efforts and joint use of facilities.
  • Enable the transit user to travel anywhere in the city by the shortest possible route on a single fare, transferring efficiently and comfortably between different modes and services.
  • To help achieve a desired modal share between all modes within an urban area and thus attain sustainable transport development.

1.1   Population Growth

Unprecedented growth and urbanization has resulted in a rapid rise in the population of the city, and the same trend is expected to continue in the future.

Table 1: Population of Jaipur by Decade

Sl. No

Year

Population

1

1951

304380

2

1961

410376

3

1971

636768

4

1981

1015160

5

1991

1518235

6

2001

2324319

7

2011

3046163

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Source: Census 2011)

The city has developed as an international tourist centre and the commercial capital of Rajasthan over the years. It had a population of 3.04 million in 2011. Table 1 shows the population growth trend of Jaipur City.

1.2   Vehicle Growth

The motor vehicles registered over the last three decades show that the vehicular population of the Jaipur district has grown enormously at an average rate of 10.72%, and in 2009-10 it was 11.6%. About 15,49,737 vehicles were newly registered in 2009-2010. The composition of registered vehicles indicates that the two-wheeler has recorded the maximum growth amongst all modes at 96%. The motorized two-wheeler population has been increasing at an annual growth rate of 9.48% (Fig. 2)

Figure 1: Vehicle Growth Rate, Jaipur1a.png

1.3   Mode Split Trend

From the traffic survey data, percentages were obtained by mode of transportation. It was observed that 41% of the people surveyed use a two-wheeler. Only 24% of the people use public transit, such as the bus service. Figure 2 clearly depicts the commuter has more inclination towards personalized vehicles, rather than public transit due to poor frequency, overcrowded vehicles, poor access to bus stops, etc.

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Figure 2: Mode Split

2  Need for Integrated Mass Transit Planning

The current urbanization and motorization situation will create problems, including the scarcity of infrastructure facilities and road networks. In the coming decade, it may be very difficult for Jaipur to handle the increasing number of trips and vehicles on the road because there may not be much scope in terms of widening the roads or providing extra or separate lanes for different categories of vehicles. The worsening traffic situation has resulted in heavy energy consumption, increased travel time, discomfort, and negative environmental impacts, like noise and air pollution. Hence, it can be very well predicted that if the situation continues in the current trend, it may be virtually impossible for the city road network to handle the traffic in the future. Any traffic measures will have little impact, as roads will most likely be jammed everywhere. The effective way to save the city and achieve sustainable development would be to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads. This can be done by encouraging optimal use of the existing transportation system and a comprehensive integrated approach towards public transport planning to provide mobility for all. The city’s public transit system can be made more attractive in terms of quicker travel, convenience, comfort, quality of life and reduced atmospheric pollution. A comprehensive integrated approach increases the efficiency of each public transport mode, as they will act as complementary modes to each other, rather than competing modes. It is also important for the economic and social prosperity of an area.

The Ministry of Urban Development in India formulated a National Urban Transport Policy in 2006 with the broad objective of ensuring that the growing number of city residents had access to safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable transportation to their jobs, education, recreation and other such needs within cities. One of the methods of achieving such objectives is to “enable the establishment of quality-focused Integrated Public Transport Systems that are well integrated, providing seamless travel across modes.” A coordinated integration of different modes brings about reduced congestion on the roads, greater convenience for commuters, efficiency and cost effectiveness. In India, Bus Rapid Transit and Metro has been identified by the Ministry of Urban Development as having a major role to play in addressing India’s transportation infrastructure needs. The Ministry wants to build rapid transit and metro networks in all of India’s major cities and has identified BRT as the core rapid transit mode for cities with populations under five million, with rail-based technologies earmarked for cities with populations over five million. In the cities where rail-based rapid transit is planned, BRT will play a supporting role, enhancing the coverage of the rail networks.

3  Integrated Mass Transit Planning for Jaipur

Integrated Mass Transit Planning is an integrated approach to incorporate all components of urban transport into a single coordinated planning and operation system for efficient use of public transport resources and infrastructure to ensure better mobility within a wide range of modal options for commuters. In urban areas, multiple agencies, jurisdictions, modes and disciplines are responsible for the planning, design, construction, operations, administration and maintenance of transport. They are independent but are highly interdependent. Hence, a well-designed and coordinated multi-modal transport system is required. In metro cities, the urbanization and migration patterns have a direct impact on intra-urban, sub-urban and inter-urban modes of transport, and vice versa. Hence, MRT, the sub-urban rail, and the bus network, etc. need to be integrated with other modes. An integrated approach for multi-modal transport is a win-win situation for commuters, transport operators, transport agencies, city authorities, etc.

The Government of Rajasthan has proposed two different projects for public transit systems with Jaipur Bus and Metro, as recommended in the National Urban Transport Policy of 2006. A comprehensive approach has been proposed for Jaipur City to bring the Jaipur bus, metro and other paratransit (minivans, three-wheelers and cycle or electric rickshaws) under one umbrella to provide seamless trips. The approach maintains the hierarchy of the transit modes with coordinated scheduling and operation to envisage a well-woven network of all the available modes in the city for better mobility.

4  Identification of Mass Rapid Transit Corridors

Mass Rapid Transit corridor options for the mass rapid transit system were identified based on the travel demand pattern, major activity centers, and the residential neighborhoods in the study area. These options were evaluated using the demand model. Data collected from the city and regional planning agencies were utilized and growth patterns of the city were identified to help find alternative options. The horizon year travel demand, i.e. the mode-wise O-D matrices, were derived from the base year trip end, distribution models and mode-choice models. The output of the horizon year model provided a glimpse of the future corridors of travel from which decisions on the most appropriate corridor have been proposed. The corridor was selected based on the major passenger movement corridors, which generate high ridership and connect the major centers of activity. (Fig. 4)

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Figure 3: Jaipur Bus & Metro Corridors

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Photo: Jaipur Metro

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Photo Jaipur Bus

5  Unified Mass Transport Operation

The aim of providing seamless trips to passengers can be achieved by setting up a Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority (UMTA) with the following objectives:

  • To bring all available public transport modes under a single authority.
  • To operate all modes in coordination with each other for enhanced comfort and safety for commuters and to eliminate wasteful duplication.
  • To generate patronage to the Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in terms of ridership with MRTS comprehensive planning.
  • To integrate paratransit (minivans, three-wheelers and cycle rickshaws) with MRTS and provide feeder routes to make them more accessible.

6  Comprehensive Integration Approach

Urban transport is a state matter, and the responsibility of managing urban areas (and thus urban transport) lies with the state governments. Each Mega City should have its own comprehensive Mobility Plan, particularly in the context of a public transport system for better city survival. A comprehensive public transport plan needs to fulfill the following requirements.

 

Connectivity:

The two-way mass transfer of passengers from road-based transit to rail-based transit is only possible if the connections between bus stops and railway stations are available through feeder bus services.

Network Integration:

Restructuring of bus routes to reduce wasteful duplication of services between bus routes and the MRT is essential at a network level. The surplus can be utilized for feeder services to the MRT stations.

Physical Integration:

Adequate space needs to be provided for interchange facilities around MRT stations for the smooth transfer of commuters from paratransit routes to the MRT. Park-n-Ride facilities need to be provided at MRT stations to provide transit riders with parking for their personal vehicles.

Information Integration:

A common paratransit-MRTS guide with complete information on the different services offered should be available for passengers at every major transfer location. The information should be advertised through various information agencies, radio, TV, internet, etc.

Unified Fare System:

A single-ticket system is necessary for passengers to be able to go from their point of departure to their destination. A single-fare system reduces travel time and increases the appeal of using paratransit and the MRTS because of the comfort offered and time saved not having to buy separate tickets for travel at paratransit stops and MRT stations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 Integrated Mass Transit System in Jaipur

The Jaipur Municipal Region had a population of 3.04 million in 2011, which is predicted to grow to 8.11 million by 2031. The Jaipur Region has a present estimated population of 4.45 million, 1.55 million of whom are employed, creating a travel demand of 3.6 million passenger trips every day, with 0.36 million trips during peak hours. With the growing population and huge development plans coming for the Pink City, travel demand is expected to grow steeply. With the growing economy and inadequate public transport services, passengers are likely to shift to private modes, which is already evident from the high vehicle ownership trends in the region. This would not only aggravate the congestion on roads but also increase pollution. Hence, it is essential to plan and provide an Integrated Metro Rail System in Jaipur. The Jaipur Metro has been proposed in two phases, details are as follows:

Table: Phases of Jaipur Metro Development

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Phase-I-A (Mansarovar to Chandpole) covers a length of 9.63 km. Mansarovar to Chandpole was completed and opened for commercial operation on 03.06.2015. 

Special features of the Jaipur Metro

Safety and Security

Accident-free & incident free

Punctuality

99.9% (100% in May, 2016)
 

Avg. Daily Ridership (2015-16)

27,490

Smart Card in Circulation

47,000

Token Sales by TVM

60%

Hours of Operation

6:25 to 21:45

Frequency

Off-Peak hours (6:25 to 16:59) – 15 minutes

Peak hours (17:00 to 21:45) -10 minutes

Fare

Off Peak hours (6:25 to 16:59) – Rs. 5 to 15

Peak hours (17:00 to 21:45) - Rs. 10 to 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure: Proposed Metro Lines

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 Photo: Jaipur Metro SMART CARD

jmrcsmartcard.jpg

 

Jaipur Metro Integrated Facilities

  • Direct access with escalators, elevators and stairs without having to cross public roads in the circulating areas of the Interstate Bus Terminal and the Jaipur Junction of Indian Railways.
  • Automatic ticket vending machines installed by Indian Railways at the Interstate bus terminal and metro stations.
  • Jaipur metro ticket machines at the Jaipur Junction of Indian Railways.
  • Surface walkway between the Jaipur Junction of Indian Railways and the metro station for seamless passenger transfers.
  • Jaipur buses stop at all metro stations they pass for easy transfers between the Jaipur bus and metro.
  • 30 Tata Magic 8-seater minivans and e-rickshaws as metro feeder services.
image009.jpg
 

Photo: Passengers on board the Jaipur Metro

8  Way Forward

Integrated mass transit planning in Jaipur explores the use of multiple modes of transport for safe, convenient and efficient movement of passengers. The Jaipur bus and metro enhance accessibility, economic growth, public health, environmental protection, security and safety, social cohesion, etc. Furthermore, it may be considered an effective means of providing better, advanced, efficient, quality transit services in the future. A comprehensive integrated approach for a multi-modal transport system requires systematic implementation of various measures and services amongst transport authorities, agencies, operators, etc. for multi-modal travel. Improving the public transport system alone may not be an effective tool in providing seamless trips, but various other measures, such as better coordination between paratransit and mass transit in terms of arrival and departure times, operation, scheduling, real-time information, congestion pricing for personal vehicles, park-and-ride facilities along highly dense corridors, etc. may be required.

Keywords: Integrated Metro, Mass Transit System, Paratransit

 

Sur la toile

https://www.lesechos.fr/industrie-services/tourisme-transport/0600109813768-trottinettes-velos-pourquoi-le-secteur-de-la-micromobilite-est-en-ebullition-2220646.php
10 novembre 2019

Les Échos

https://www.lesechos.fr/monde/europe/0600499013120-ca-se-passe-en-europe-la-mairie-de-bari-remboursera-les-kilometres-effectues-a-bicyclette-2236032.php
14 janvier 2019

Les Échos

https://ici.radio-canada.ca/premiere/emissions/moteur-de-recherche/segments/chronique/101928/voiture-autonome-hiver-canada-vehicule-neige-glace-lidar
11 janvier 2019

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